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MODERN  REFRENCES OF PUNARNAVAROOT

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Clinical Studies

 Effectiveness of B. Diffusa drug in inflammation, renal diseases, andnephrotic syndromes is demonstrated by Singh and Udupa (1972b).   In a study of 15 patients with nephrotic syndrome treated with the decoction of the crude drug, six responded well becoming totally symptom-free and    showing minimal albuminuria and histopathological changes in the kidney;   seven patients improved showing relief in symptoms but still showing massive albumin urea and urinary sediments, and one patient deteriorated even after

treatment of 2-3 weeks.

 

(Singh RH and Udupa KN, Studies on the Indian indigenous drug Punarnava

(B. diffusa) IV. Preliminary controlled clinical trial in nephrotic syndrome. J.

Res. Indian Med. 7(3):28, (1972b))

 Hypoxanthine-9-L-arabinofuranoside present in the drug lowered serum uric acid levels in experimental animals as also human volunteers.

(Asolkar LV, Kakkar KK. and Chakre OJ. Second supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants with Active Principles, Publications & Information

Directorate (CSIR), New Delhi, Part I (A-K):131, 1992)

 

Hepatoprotective Effects

 Aqueous extract and the alkaloid fraction increased the liver ATP,

phosphohydrolase activity in arthritic animals

(Bhalla TN., Gupta MB. and Bhargava KP. Anti-inflammatory and biochemical

study of B. diffusa. J. Res. Indian Med. 6:11, 1971 cited from Chemexcil,

1992) (Bhalla TN., Gupta MB., Seth PK and Bhargava KP. Anti-inflammatory activity

of B. diffusa. Indian J. Physiol Pharmacol, 12:37, 1968. cited from Kapoor,

1990)

 

Hepatoprotective activity of 50% aqueous alcohol extract of the whole plant against experimentally induced carbon tetrachloride   hepatotoxicity in rats and mice was observed. An increase in normal bile flow in rats and significant decrease in serum bilirubin levels suggest strong choleritic activity, strong stimulating action on the secretory activity of liver. The extract is  effective in the maintenance of normal functional status of liver. The extract  did not show any signs of toxicity up to oral dose of 2 g/kg in mice.

 

(Chandan BK, Sharma AK and Anand KK. Boerhaavia diffusa : a study of its

Hepatoprotective activity. J. Ethnopharmac, 31(3):299, 1991)

 

The hepatoprotecive activity of roots of different diameters collected in three  seasons, rainy, summer and winter, was examined in thioacetamide-

intoxicated rats. The results showed that an aqueous extract (2ml/kg) of roots  of diameter 1-3 cm. collected in the month of May (summer), exhibited

marked protection of a majority of serum parameters, i.e. GOT, GPT, ACP and  ALP, but not GLDH and bilirubin, thereby suggesting the proper size and time of collection of B. diffusa roots for the most desirable results. Further, the

studies also proved that the aqueous form of drug (2ml/kg) administration  has more Hepatoprotective effect than the powder form.

 

(Rawat AK, Mehrotra S., Tripathi SC and Shome U. Hepatoprotective activity

of Boerhaavia diffusa L roots - a popular Indian ethnomedicine. J.

Ethnopharmac., 56(1):61, 1997).

� Hepatoprotective effects are reported by (Chakravarti KK and Handa SS)

(Chakravarti KK and Handa SS, Indian Drugs, 27:161, 1989. Cited from

Handa et al., 1998)

 

Anti-inflammatory and Diuretic Effects

 

A comparative study for the anti-inflammatory effect of the various parts of  the plant in carrageenin induced hind paw oedema showed that the activity was significantly more in alcoholic extracts of roots and leaves as compared to

stem and whole plant. Mudgal V. J Res Ind Med., 9(2):57, 1974; 12(4):108, 1977. Cited from

Chemexcil, 1992) Acetone extract of root showed most potent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenin-induced oedema and formaldehyde-induced arthritis in albino rats.

 

(Bhalla TN., Gupta MB. and Bhargava KP. Anti-inflammatory and biochemical

study of B. diffusa. J. Res. Indian Med. 6:11, 1971 cited from Chemexcil,

1992)

 

Aqueous extract and the alkaloid fraction of the root significantly inhibited the increased serum aminotransferase in arthritic animals similar to hydrocortisone.

 

(Bhalla TN., Gupta MB., Seth PK and Bhargava KP. Anti-inflammatory activity of B. diffusa. Indian J. Physiol Pharmacol, 12:37, 1968. cited from Kapoor, 1990)  Water insoluble portion of the total alcoholic extract and an active fraction of petroleum ether extract displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin-induced hind paw oedema and potent diuretic activity in rats.

 

(Singh RH and Udupa KN, Studies on the Indian indigenous drug Punarnava (B. diffusa) III. Experimental and Pharmacological studies J. Res. Indian Med. 7(3):17, (1972a))

 

Diuretic action of the water insoluble alcoholic extract of roots and leaves is significantly higher as compared to that of stems and the whole plant.

 

(Gujral ML., Saxena PN. and Mishra SS. J. Indian Med. Asson. 25:49, 1955.

cited from Chemexcil, 1992)

 The plant possesses potent anti-fibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory properties and is recommended for the treatment of IUD menorrhagia.

(Barthwal M and Srivastava K. Management of IUD-associated menorrhagia in female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Advances in contraception, 7(1):67, 1990)

 

Other Pharmacological Effects

Hypoxanthine-9-L-arabinofuranoside, the nucleoside isolated from the roots relaxed isolated coronary artery of the goat contracted with potassium chloride. The action, similar to that of inosine, is thought to be a direct vasodilator effect not involving vascular adenosine receptors. (Ojewole JAO and Adensia K Fitoterapia, 56:31, 1985 cited from Chemexcil 1992)

 The total alcoholic extract showed a Cardiotonic effect and an increase in blood pressure in frog and dog model and in vitro relaxant effect in rabbit ileum.

 

(Singh RH and Udupa KN, Studies on the Indian indigenous drug Punarnava (B. diffusa) III. Experimental and Pharmacological studies J. Res. Indian Med. 7(3):17, (1972a))

 Liriodendrin isolated from the root extract exhibited a significant Ca2+ channel antagonistic effect in frog heart single cells.

(Lami N., Kadota S., Kikuchi T and Momose Y. Constituents of the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa L. III identification of Ca2+ channel antagonistic compound from the methanol extract. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 39(6):1551, 1991)

 

 The drug proved useful as a Haematinic and growth promoter in children fed with milk fortified with it.

(The Wealth of India (Raw material) Publication and Information Directorate (CSIR), New Delhi, Vol. 2B:174, 1988 and references cited therein)  50% ethanolic extract of the roots, on oral administration was found to stop intrauterine-contraceptive-device-induced bleeding in monkeys at 50 mg/kg body weight. Punarnavoside is an anti-fibrinolytic agent.

 

 Alcoholic extract of root is anti-bacterial. (Singh RH and Udupa KN, Studies on the Indian indigenous drug Punarnava

(B. diffusa) III. Experimental and Pharmacological studies J. Res. Indian Med. 7(3):17, (1972a))

Anabolising effects have been studied.

(Apparao MVR., Usha SP., Rajgopalan SS. and Saranjan R. Six months results of a double blind trial to study the effect of Mandookparni and Punarnava on normal adults. J. Res. Ind. Med., 2:79, 1967)

 

 

 


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